THE ARMY RESERVE POSTURE STATEMENT
Submitted to Congress each fiscal year, is an unclassified summary of Army Reserve roles, current commitments and accomplishments, challenges and compelling needs. The Army Reserve Posture Statement also informs Congress of the resources, necessary supplemental funding, and legislative authorities required by the Army Reserve.
LIEUTENANT GENERAL CHARLES D. LUCKEY
33D CHIEF OF ARMY RESERVE AND 8TH COMMANDING GENERAL,
UNITED STATES ARMY RESERVE COMMAND
BEFORE THE SUBCOMMITTEE ON DEFENSE
COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
UNITED STATES HOUSE OF REPRESENTATIVES
SECOND SESSION, 116TH CONGRESS
ON THE 2020 POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY RESERVE:
AMERICA’S GLOBAL OPERATIONAL RESERVE FORCE
MARCH 3, 2020
AMERICA’S ARMY RESERVE: Leadership. Energy. Execution.
The increasingly complex and volatile global security environment, the changing character of warfare, and the rapid advance of technology continue to demand increased readiness and capability to deter and, if necessary, defeat aggression. As the dedicated federal reserve of the Army, America’s Army Reserve — its units-of-action and individual Soldiers — must be ready to mobilize, deploy, fight and win as an integrated part of the Army team anywhere in the World. More to the point, it must do so quickly.
Over a long history of wars and contingency operations, as well as domestic emergencies, the Soldiers of America’s Army Reserve have never failed to answer the Nation’s call, evolving from a small corps of medical professionals to what is today a global operational reserve force. Over the past several years, the Army Reserve initiated a major shift in posture - away from a rotational model to a force with sustained levels of readiness and a renewed emphasis on the field craft necessary to deploy, fight and win against peer threats. Today, we continue to build and sustain the most capable, combat-ready and lethal Federal Reserve force in the history of the Nation. It is a large undertaking. As a community-based force with a presence in all 50 states, five U.S. territories and 30 countries, America’s Army Reserve spans the globe with over 200,000 Soldiers and Civilian employees and 2,000+ units in twenty different time zones. It comprises nearly 20 percent of the Army’s organized units and over a quarter of its mobilization base-expansion capacity. As a unique set of enabling capabilities, the Army Reserve provides half of the Army’s maneuver support and sustainment formations, including medical, fuel distribution, civil affairs, logistics, and transportation units. Put simply, America’s Army Reserve supports U.S. national security interests by providing key and essential capabilities that the Total Army and the Joint Force need to dominate on the battlefield during the opening days of conflict. Nested within the Army’s priorities of Readiness, Modernization and Reform, our supporting lines-of-effort are to:
The challenges of building and fielding such an array of ready and lethal capabilities from the ranks of a largely part-time team is no small task. However, the diversity and efficiency of the force is also its strength. Leveraging a dispersed and dynamic phalanx of Soldiers and leaders with civilian-acquired or retained skills from over 140 different career fields, America’s Army Reserve brings the brains and brawn of the Nation to bear for the Army and the Joint Warfighter — when needed.
This effort requires a balance of pragmatism, operational drive and focus, and a strategic perspective on the tough business of driving deep and abiding cultural change. Shifting our orientation from predictable, rotational and episodic readiness and employment, to large-scale and short-notice combat operations against a peer threat demands a dramatic change in our mindset and perspective. At its core, only inspired leadership at echelon — combined with boundless energy and a pervasive commitment to embrace and deliver the warrior ethos within the context of existential warfare — will harden this team’s resolve and hone the decisive edge. This is the work that we are about.
Our dynamic requirement remains straightforward, but tough: This team needs to be ready enough to be relevant, but not so ready that our Soldiers cannot maintain good, meaningful civilian jobs and healthy, sustaining family lives. This challenge is exacerbated by the simple fact that we must recruit and retain our ranks where Soldiers live and work, and anticipate emerging demographics by moving force structure to not only where talent resides today, but where it will be tomorrow. This process demands agility, synchronization and integrated planning. It also relies, without exception, upon the enduring support of thousands of Employers across America as well as our Soldiers’ Families.
Put simply, this part-time force would not be possible without the support of civilian Employers around the globe. They are our essential partners in National Security — sharing the best talent in the World — as they continue the commitment and sacrifice which allows Soldiers to serve the Nation while maintaining rewarding civilian employment. America owes those employers, who are willing to trade a short-term inconvenience or disruption to the “bottom line” in ex-change for a more secure common future, a deep appreciation for sharing their workplace talent with America’s Army Reserve.
As with employers, nothing would be possible for an all-volunteer force unless our Families continued to stay on the team. There is no doubt that the Army depends on its Families to support its Soldiers and to share them with us. This is doubly true in the Reserve Component where many weekends and training days are consumed in what would otherwise likely be “family time” for our Active Component brothers and sisters. Accordingly, the Army Reserve relies heavily on our Families, and the communities that support them, as we partner with a broad range of organizations and employers who support our military families.
To that end, America’s Army Reserve is pressing hard to leverage new technologies and opportunities to better communicate with our entire Army Reserve family. We are now fielding a new “smart phone friendly” application that enables our Families to self-organize and provide mutual support where they live and work at the zip code level without regard to their Soldier’s specific unit-of-assignment or chain-of-command. This Double Eagle mobile application (app) is also designed to help leaders maintain contact with Soldiers during the periods between battle assemblies, as well as conjure supporting resources for Soldiers and family members who may be in crisis. As a command insight tool, the app creates a broadly expanded level of access and connectivity, propagating the penetration-at-echelon of timely and relevant information and key aspects of commander’s intent. Across our dispersed battle-space, it will increase our Soldiers’ bond as a team while offering their Families similar opportunities as a critical partner in this un-dertaking. Finally, working in close coordination with US Army Recruiting Command, the app will be optimized to support the Total Army in identifying potential recruits for the team by lev-eraging the entire end-strength of America’s Army Reserve as real-time recruiters, living and working across America and scouting talent for the Nation.
BUILDING THE MOST CAPABLE, COMBAT-READY AND LETHAL FEDERAL RESERVE FORCE IN THE HISTORY OF THE NATION
In preparing to meet the challenges of this new and evolving threat paradigm, your Army Reserve is training, organizing and posturing itself to be able to respond on short notice to identify early-deploying formations, aggregate additional capabilities and move quickly to accomplish post-mobilization training tasks in order to meet the Warfighter’s time-sensitive requirements. This construct, Ready Force X (RFX), is the way in which we focus energy, optimize processes and prioritize resourcing to deliver capabilities at the speed of relevance for a major war. Early-deploying RFX units and capabilities need to be able to move quickly – in some cases in days or weeks – in order to support the Joint Force in any significant conflict or demonstration of national resolve. We do not call this “fight tonight” readiness; we call it “fight fast” capability. From a cultural perspective, RFX requires each Soldier, at the individual level, to embrace the ethos of personal readiness. While many aspects of collective readiness at the unit level can be tuned-up quickly upon mobilization, the key individual Soldier requirements of physical fitness, medical readiness, tactical discipline, professional education, and fieldcraft proficiency must be “baked in” to the entire force. Put simply, at a profound level, we are all in RFX.
As noted above, this focus on fighting fast, and in opposition to a peer adversary, is a stark and challenging departure from the progressive and rotational (or cyclic) readiness models that have evolved over the past nineteen years of sustained operations, primarily in the CENTCOM theater of operations. Not only does it drive all aspects of our training to build increasingly high levels of both individual and collective readiness, but it enables us to prioritize equipping and modernization of certain formations or capabilities with a sustained level of focus over a period of years. This is because the lead capability sets and formations inside the RFX architecture do not “rotate” arbitrarily from one year to the next. This key attribute — the ability to plan and sustain a coherent training, equipping and resourcing strategy across a number of years for the bulk of America’s Army Reserve — will deliver ever greater capability and lethality as we move into the future.
As with the other Components of the Army, your Army Reserve pushes to stress Soldiers and units with relevant scenarios that emulate the full-spectrum, all-domain, aspects of the next fight, while simultaneously acknowledging that we continue to deploy the force into the current one. By orchestrating, rationalizing and synchronizing strenuous training exercises and activities at a wide variety of training platforms and venues across North America, and around the globe, your Army Reserve has elevated its priority on combat-readiness and fieldcraft to an unprecedented level. Working closely with the other Components of the Army and, in many cases, with close partners and allies from around the World, America’s Army Reserve continues to build and expand upon opportunities to train the way we will fight: together. Whether it be our expanded and, essentially, year-round Cold Steel gunnery operation — now well into its fourth year — or an expansion of Combat Support Training Exercises (CSTXs), routine and embedded rotations at the Army’s Combat Training Centers, or ever closer collaboration with our teammates in the Army National Guard at such training venues as Northern Strike or Golden Coyote, we continue to explore expanded options to build readiness for tomorrow.
The Army Reserve is always looking to the future, and developing the capabilities and sustained readiness necessary to deter, and if deterrence fails, win the next fight. To that end, we have already received and deployed an initial tranche of 60 Joint Light Tactical Vehicles (JLTVs), which we will use as training and familiarization platforms, setting the conditions for fielding-at-scale in the years ahead. As the leading edge of Army Reserve modernization, these initial JLTVs will support the Army Reserve Training Strategy and accelerate Army interoperability; both in training and on the battlefield.
DEFENSE SUPPORT TO CIVIL AUTHORITIES (DSCA)
Always Present. Always Ready.
With Soldiers, facilities and capabilities in more than a thousand communities across the Nation, America’s Army Reserve is well-postured to respond quickly when disaster strikes and our fellow Americans are in their time of greatest need. Our key responsive capabilities include search and rescue units, aviation assets, route clearance engineers, medical units, water and fuel distribution operations, water purification and communications support; many of these forces have been well-tested over the recent past. While we fully acknowledge that our first responsibility is to leverage our unique capabilities to support the Army in winning the Nation’s wars, we also embrace our opportunity and mandate to respond to need, on no-notice, in the Homeland. As America’s Army Reserve demonstrated recently in its response to Hurricanes Harvey, Irma, Maria, Florence and Dorian, and in ongoing support operations in response to the recent earth-quakes in Puerto Rico, we cede this responsibility to no one.
The Army Reserve has been able to invest in the capacity and depth to be well-postured to move quickly and effectively to support our fellow citizens when they need our support. This is a huge benefit to the Nation, and one that informs our focus as we look to the future.
While recognizing the Federal Emergency Management Agency is the lead federal agency for disaster response in the Homeland, America’s Army Reserve is enhancing the immediate response authority of our Army Reserve Regional Commands to more effectively command and control units to execute emergency response operations in support of the American people. As an example, and to that end, we have reorganized, empowered and equipped our 1st Mission Support Command, headquartered at Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico, to be the “go-to command” to generate and integrate your Army Reserve’s immediate response operations in the Caribbean when disaster response is needed. We will continue to shape, develop and scale this capability as we move forward, ensuring that we position our units and their equipment to become ever more responsive and operationally effective, whenever and wherever needed.
SHAPE AND GROW THE FUTURE FORCE: Modernize and Transform
From its inception in 1908, leveraging the huge capacity and existing technical capability of medical professionals in the Nation’s private sector, America’s Army Reserve has always brought depth in critical technologies to the Army for a massive discount to the taxpayers. Our times are no different. Drawing now upon its diverse and dispersed professionals working in a variety of leading edge technologies across the Country, your Army Reserve will tap into the finest brains in business, industry and academia to act as a screening force for the Army and an additive to National Security. This role is in our cultural DNA.
For the past two years, your Army Reserve has been on a path of transforming its structure and procedures to seize the "digital key terrain.” This journey presses on as our 2-star Innovation Command — still headquartered in Houston, Texas and now in Direct Support of Army Futures Command in Austin — assesses and develops emerging outposts in technology hubs across the country, focusing on the harnessing of skills and talent acquired or retained in the commercial sector. The command serves as a link for operational innovation and the development of concepts and capabilities to enhance the readiness of the future force by capitalizing on extensive “civilian acquired or retained” knowledge, skills, abilities, and experience. As a screening force for the Army, we are uniquely positioned to support the Army in staying on pace with rapidly emerging trends or opportunities in the private sector, while also providing a potential pool of on-demand talent for Army Futures Command. This process is already well underway.
As it pertains to cyberspace operations, we remain steadily on glide path to establishing Cyber Protection Teams at key locations around the country, such as Camp Parks, CA (Bay Area), Adelphi, MD (DC), San Antonio, TX, Fort Devens, MA (Boston), East Point, GA (Atlanta), and Coraopolis, PA (Pittsburgh). Moreover, the Army Reserve Cyber Operations Group (ARCOG), with five Cyber Protection Centers and ten Cyber Protection Teams, provided direct support to Army Cyber Command (ARCYBER), and general support to other government agencies including DHS, NSA, FBI and DIA. Army Reserve Cyber Soldiers bring unique skills and experience to the force from their civilian occupations, drawn from over 40 corporate, financial and academic institutions. The cyber talent within the Army Reserve delivers capability, improves cyber readiness, and increases our network defense capability. To identify and cultivate cyber talent, the Army Reserve created the National Cyber Private Public Partnership in 2015. This program places Soldiers in critical Army Reserve cyber formation and provides enhanced opportunities to pursue civilian careers in the field.
As for reform, America’s Army Reserve is committed to achieving the Secretary of the Army's intent of increasing both the effectiveness as well as the efficiency of the Total Army. As the Principal Official of this Component of the Army as well as the Commanding General, U.S. Army Reserve Command, I have directed my team to consolidate supporting staff operations, re-shape headquarters and drive to an integrated Army Reserve Staff that is optimized to support each independent set of responsibilities as a holistic effort. This rigorous analysis and scrutiny predates the publication of the Department of the Army Reform Initiative memorandum and is advancing on pace. Over time, this initiative will enable us to strike the right balance between staffing head-quarters, providing full time support to units in the field, and cascading appropriate authorities “down echelon”. We will continue to assess and evaluate the size, consolidation and function of headquarters as we press into the future, and we will adjust with agility and speed.
We remain grateful to the Congress for passing the FY20 defense appropriations bill. The need for consistent, predictable, and timely funding is critical to Army Reserve readiness and modernization requirements. As a result of it, your Army Reserve will continue to meet the challenges of the time. In these dynamic and challenging times, we will stay steady in the saddle as we build the most capable, combat-ready, and lethal Federal Reserve in the history of the Nation.
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2020 U.S. Army Reserve Posture Statement
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