LIEUTENANT GENERAL JODY J. DANIELS
34TH CHIEF OF ARMY RESERVE AND
9TH COMMANDING GENERAL, U.S. ARMY RESERVE COMMAND
SUBCOMMITTEE ON DEFENSE
COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
UNITED STATES SENATE
FIRST SESSION, 118TH CONGRESS
ON THE 2023 POSTURE OF THE UNITED STATES ARMY RESERVE:
AMERICA’S GLOBAL OPERATIONAL RESERVE FORCE
JUNE 1, 2023
NOT FOR PUBLICATION UNTIL RELEASED BY THE
COMMITTEE ON APPROPRIATIONS
The United States Army Reserve
Ready Now! Shaping Tomorrow . . .
In today’s unpredictable global environment, the Army Reserve is more consequential than ever. Since its establishment 115 years ago, the Army Reserve has never failed to answer the call to serve. Since 1908, more than one million citizen soldiers have been mobilized in defense of the nation – at home and around the world.
The core strength of the Army Reserve is its ability to provide high-quality military capabilities, enhanced by citizen soldiers’ civilian skills, education, training, and experience. As the Army prepares for Multi-Domain Operations, harnessing private sector education and expertise in areas such as artificial intelligence, cyber, and sustainment are vital in providing the Army and the nation an asymmetric advantage against potential adversaries. These capabilities, critical during Large-Scale Combat Operations, are also crucial in defending the homeland.
The Army Reserve is both a component and a command. Flexible and adaptable, the Army Reserve provides the Army, combatant commanders, and the nation with "forces to rapidly surge and provide follow-on forces, thereby mitigating force structure reductions and impacts from prolonged operations.” On any given day, more than 10,000 Army Reserve soldiers are mobilized or deployed in support of combatant commands worldwide. Thousands more participate in deployment training or annual Joint exercises that strengthen our alliances and partnerships, contributing to integrated deterrence and campaigning. And on average, the Army Reserve supports the mobilization and deployment of more than 10,000 soldiers and civilians from force generation installations annually.
The Joint Force cannot deploy, fight, and win without the Army Reserve. The Army provides the bulk of sustainment forces to the joint fight, and the majority of these capabilities reside in the Army Reserve. Citizen Soldiers maintain specialized skills required to support Large Scale Combat Operations – including theater-opening and theater-level sustainment – as well as civilian-acquired skills, training, and certifications that are costly to maintain on active duty, such as medical, cyber, legal, engineering, and port operations.
By the Numbers
The Army Reserve has an FY23 authorized strength of 177,000 soldiers, includes 11,000 civilians, and is present in all 50 states and five U.S. territories. Fiscally efficient, the Army Reserve supports the needs of the Total Force, with just 15% of the component serving as fulltime support.
Making up nearly 20% of the Total Army’s personnel, the Army Reserve provides critical units and capabilities – nearly half of its maneuver support, and a quarter of its force mobilization capacity – at a cost of just 5% of the total Army Operation and Maintenance budget.
More than 50% of the Army’s quartermaster and medical formations, over 80% of its civil affairs, legal, psychological operations, and religious units, and over 40% of its chemical and transportation forces reside in the Army Reserve. Some critical enabling capabilities include petroleum distribution, water purification, and railroad operations.
The Army Reserve maintains five installations and an Army Support Activity: Fort Hunter Liggett and Parks Reserve Forces Training Area, California; Fort McCoy, Wisconsin; Fort Buchanan, Puerto Rico; Devens Reserve Forces Training Area, Massachusetts; and Army Support Activity – Fort Dix, New Jersey. Additionally, with 742 Army Reserve facilities, the Army Reserve’s dispersed footprint is in every corner of the country, enabling the U.S. to project combat power and creating an added layer of resiliency.
Each year, Army Reserve facilities support upwards of 335,000 servicemembers from every Department of Defense (DoD) branch – partnering with federal, state, and local agencies for joint training missions – with ranges, maneuver areas, urban assault, military transport aircraft-capable landing sites, transient barracks, and dining facilities.
Recruiting and Retention
Preserving the all-volunteer force is vital to our national security interests. In an extremely challenging recruiting environment, sustaining the resources required to recruit and retain soldiers is critical to the Army Reserve’s ability to generate the readiness required to deploy trained, capable, combat-ready, and lethal soldiers.
In fiscal year (FY) 2022, the Army Reserve recruited 9,400 new soldiers, falling short of our mission. To close the gap, commanders, and staff are maximizing every potential source of high-quality accessions and working to minimize preventable attrition. Recruiting and retention investments include $164.4 million in incentives, and approximately 3,000 full-time soldiers directly supporting Army Reserve recruiting and retention activities.
In 2022, the Army Reserve achieved 107% of the Army Reserve Active Component to Reserve Component (AC2RC) mission by retaining more than 4,000 active component service members. This program continues to perform strongly in FY 2023.
The Army Reserve Private Public Partnership Office (P3O) is contacting transitioning active component members about the AC2RC program by linking transitioning active duty servicemembers to civilian career pathways through continued service in the Army Reserve. This initiative – currently being implemented at the soon to be Fort Liberty, currently known as Fort Bragg, Fort Stewart, Fort Cavazos, Fort Bliss, Joint Base Lewis-McChord, and Schofield Barracks – allows the nation to retain valuable talent while providing transitioning service members with civilian career opportunities.
P3O is also working with U.S. Army Recruiting Command to link new Army Reserve recruits with an employment specialist to explore their civilian career options.
In order to connect with the public – and future soldiers – we recently introduced a new branding strategy, including a new logo and public outreach program to better reflect today’s citizen-soldier – the selfless professional who balances the responsibilities of both nation and family, uniform and civilian workplace.
Soldiers and Families
Citizen Soldiers are invaluable to our nation’s defense, bringing civilian-acquired skills and experiences to the Army Reserve, and personifying the Army’s values in their local communities. The Army Reserve is a highly educated, experienced and diverse force, which provides operational flexibility and strategic depth.
African Americans, Hispanics, Asian/Pacific Islanders, and Native Americans comprise over half of the Army Reserve force. Women comprise more than 25% of all Army Reserve soldiers and 22% of general officers.
Thirty-three percent of all Army Reserve soldiers hold a bachelor’s degree or higher. In the officer ranks, 32% hold master’s degrees and 13% hold doctorates. Soldiers in the enlisted ranks are also pursuing higher education. More than 13% hold bachelor’s degrees, and nearly 4% have a master’s or doctoral degree – benefiting employers and the nation.
The Army Reserve relies heavily on the support of families and communities, as well as the persistent willingness of employers to share their best talent. From family-focused programs to quality-of-life initiatives and employer partnerships, the Army Reserve’s focus on caring for soldiers and families is at the core of our shared Army values – and crucial to the readiness and health of the force as we strive towards improved work-life integration between Army Reserve requirements, civilian career responsibilities, and family.
Army Reserve family programs continue to provide our geographically dispersed soldiers and families across more than 1,200 communities with a clear path to command and community resources, assistance, and referrals for every aspect of military life, including Military Onesource, childcare, food assistance, and behavioral health resources.
The Army Reserve recruits and retains our soldiers where they live and work. Providing civilian employers with advance notification of military commitments and treating them as partners in national security demonstrates that everyone has a role in serving the American people.
To support work-life integration, P3O links eligible team members to immediate and long-term employment opportunities. This year, P3O partnered with more than 150 businesses across career fields such as engineering, healthcare, finance, cyber security, and logistics. Through these connections, 730 soldiers, spouses, and family members were hired — an 86% placement rate.
Through quality-of-life initiatives such as travel and lodging expenses, health, and childcare programs, we continually improve how we care for our soldiers. From training management to a focus on culture and work-life integration, the Army Reserve’s People First approach makes the Total Force stronger. The Army Reserve focuses on supporting all aspects of a soldier’s life: families, civilian employment, and educational goals, integrated with a rewarding uniformed experience that delivers the training, confidence, and leadership skills that employers seek.
Addressing Harmful Behaviors
The Army Reserve is evaluating programs and activities surrounding harmful behaviors to determine the effectiveness of existing efforts – taking a scientific, data-based approach to decreasing risk factors and increasing protective factors.
The development and implementation of an Integrated Prevention Advisory Group will allow a collaborative look at primary prevention activities, including policies, programs, and practices that aim to prevent harmful behaviors – sexual harassment and assault, as well as suicidal behavior and ideations will be particularly examined.
Sexual Harassment/Assault Response and Prevention (SHARP)
The Army Reserve Sexual Harassment/Assault Response and Prevention (SHARP) program continues to provide staff assistance to every major subordinate command’s program. Based on the results of an internal analysis – in coordination with Army’s People First Task Force and the Independent Review Commission on Sexual Assault in the Military recommendations as approved by the Secretary of Defense – the Army Reserve is executing a SHARP Fusion Directorate pilot.
The 99th Readiness Division’s SHARP Fusion Directorate’s victim-centered program is showing improvements in the ability of Sexual Assault Response Coordinators, and Sexual Assault Prevention and Response victim advocates, in coordination with law enforcement, to create a flexible and responsive system which streamlines what can be a complex process – from making a report through case resolution and long-term recovery. Established as a year-long program in July 2022, this virtual alternative reporting process is tailored to the Army Reserve’s geographically dispersed force, leveraging technology to connect victims with providers throughout a 13-state region.
Suicide remains one of the Army’s most complex challenges, and prevention requires a comprehensive approach. In 2022, the Army Reserve experienced a slight decrease in suicides – however, one suicide is one too many. Our suicide incident reports reveal soldiers are demonstrating increased confidence in leaders and actively seeking help. The Army Reserve supported nearly 500 soldiers needing help and intervention through the support of unit leadership, Chaplain Corps, Suicide Prevention Program Managers, Army Reserve Psychological Health Program, and Military OneSource. An increased number – 82% – of soldiers are seeking help on their own initiative. Likewise, an increased number of leaders are recognizing changes in behavior and engaging in intervention.
Families are on the front line of defense against suicide. The Army Reserve now offers family members free virtual suicide prevention training to help them build the skills to provide support and dispel any stigma about seeking care.
Virtual command team suicide prevention training assists commanders in building prevention programs that empower soldiers and leaders at all levels to identify and address high-risk behavior early on. Soldiers — down to the squad-leader level — are empowered to escort any soldier in crisis to immediate life-saving care.
With the statutory minimum of 39 days a year to meet individual and collective readiness requirements, the Army Reserve focuses on tough, realistic training done safely to generate the readiness required to support operations home and abroad. Added emphasis on individual and collective training opportunities enhances unit readiness and allows soldiers to improve their individual skills.
Optimizing the time to shape, grow, and retain the future force through effective and efficient training and maintenance management allows soldiers to build proficiency in their mission-essential tasks and deepen their technical skills – giving them a sense of purpose and fueling their passions.
By removing redundant administrative tasks and concentrating on creating the kinds of relevant experiences citizen soldiers will want to bring back to their communities, the Army Reserve is changing its culture – and helping to bridge the knowledge divide between the military and the American public. As soldiers learn, train, and grow, employers and members of more than 1,200 communities stand to benefit from their accumulated knowledge, leadership, and technical expertise.
The Army Reserve is present in 20 time zones and on five continents around the world – around the clock. This presence makes a difference every day, in communities across America, and around the world. It also expands relationships with allies and partners and serves as a critical deterrent against our near-peer adversaries.
An example of this integral role can be seen across Europe and in the Indo-Pacific – the DoD’s priority theater – where the Army Reserve’s regional forces span Hawaii, Alaska, America Samoa, Saipan, Guam, and 12 additional countries.
More than 7,000 soldiers and 43 units enable early-entry theater-opening and sustainment of Joint operations across vast distances, strengthening our partnerships, enhancing interoperability, and increasing collective readiness. Combined with additional staff augmentation and operational support from 13 commands on the mainland, they deliver functional support to U.S. Indo-Pacific Command, U.S. Forces Korea, U.S. Forces Japan, and U.S. Army Pacific.
The Army Reserve strengthens logistics and sustainment to support of the Joint Force in the Indo-Pacific and Europe, enhancing the Army’s readiness in the regions. Our contested logistics capabilities ensure freedom of action and prolonged endurance for our combatant commanders, extending operational reach to the vital points of conflict.
The Army Reserve also supports Operation Pathways, a series of key international exercises, including Pacific Sentry and Talisman Saber in Australia, Garuda Shield in Indonesia, and Salaknib in the Philippines. These exercises help deter aggression, build joint readiness and interoperability, and increase the confidence of our allies and partners across the Indo-Pacific.
Twenty-three units and more than 1,000 Army Reserve soldiers are also supporting NATO missions in the U.S. European Command area of operations with a broad spectrum of capabilities, including cyber, intelligence, logistics, transportation and civil affairs.
Since the onset of war in Ukraine, the Army Reserve supplied more than 100 pieces of equipment, including armored personnel carriers, cargo trucks, and mine countermeasure equipment under Presidential Drawdown Authority directives. Sustained funding is essential for continued NATO support.
Army Reserve units regularly participate in realistic collective training events to prepare for Large-Scale Combat Operations in a multi-domain environment. In FY 2022, 2,600 soldiers rotated through the National Training Center at Fort Irwin, California, and more than 1,500 participated in collective training at the Joint Readiness Training Center at Fort Polk, Louisiana, honing the skills needed for future multi-domain operations.
Defense Support of Civil Authorities
With soldiers and equipment strategically postured throughout the country, the Army Reserve flexes critical assets to support Homeland Defense and Defense Support of Civil Authorities – such as “Heavy Lift” helicopters search and rescue, supply, medical, civil affairs, and engineer capabilities.
Army Reserve Emergency Preparedness Liaison Officers (EPLOs) stand ready to support state and local authorities in times of natural and man-made disasters. Over the past five years, more than 2,500 Army Reserve soldiers supported incident response. Recently, 23 EPLOs deployed to provide critical connectivity as federal and military officials reached out to communities in need during Hurricanes Ida, Fiona, Ian, and Tropical Storm Nicole. EPLOs have also supported winter storm response in the western United States.
Army Reserve aviation assets are among those called to provide key capabilities needed for disaster response. UH-60 Blackhawk crews assisted in fire-fighting operations in central Texas, while CH-47 Chinook aircrews also assisted civilian first responders in conducting search and rescue operations on Mount Rainier, Washington.
The Army Reserve is evolving to meet the challenges of our time – preparing not only for the future of Large-Scale Combat Operations, but also for the increasingly complex needs of the Joint warfighter in a multi-domain operational environment by balancing mission-critical capabilities across the force spectrum.
To meet the evolving needs of the Army and the nation, we will simultaneously focus on recruiting the next generation of Citizen Soldiers while ensuring that the current force is Ready Now. Building on this, the Army Reserve will concentrate on increasing interoperability through targeted modernization efforts and capability development, ensuring seamless support to the Joint Force throughout the conflict continuum.
The Army Reserve is modernizing its facilities and serving as a sustainability leader in energy and water resilience, environmental compliance, solid waste management, vehicle electrification, and long-term sustainability planning.
As part of the “Defense Innovation Unit Electric Vehicle Support Equipment” pilot, the Army Reserve is also implementing a climate resiliency process, which includes recommendations on prioritizing projects that increase the resilience of buildings and natural infrastructure.
Soldiers assigned to the 75th Innovation Command are employed in a wide range of career fields, bringing critical job experience and skill sets to accelerate innovations and technologies. Areas of expertise include artificial intelligence, autonomy, and robotics, block-chain, cyber, medical, synthetic biology, and space. As the Army moves toward multi-domain operations, Army Reserve soldiers will play a critical role in linking the private sector into the defense enterprise.
Professional skills in areas like defensive cyber operations provide valuable capabilities. The Army Reserve provided 25% of the Total Army’s Cyber Protection Teams aligned to the U.S. Cyber Command's Cyber Mission Force. Our soldiers conduct defensive cyberspace operations in support of the Army, Combatant Commands, the DoD, and Interagency operations worldwide.
The Army Reserve is preparing to conduct home-station defense cyberspace operations in support of Exercise Defender Europe 23 — designed to support mission partners and assist in real-world exercises.
As the Army Reserve looks to the future, leveraging National Guard and Reserve Equipment Account funding is a key component of our modernization strategy. This enables the Army Reserve to fill mission-critical shortages that improve overall readiness and interoperability.
In an era of strategic competition, the Army needs forces capable of defeating adversaries, responding to crises, and preparing for the future. To accomplish these goals, the U.S. needs a dedicated federal reserve force that is ready today and prepared to shape the world of tomorrow. That force is the United States Army Reserve.
To deliver cutting-edge capabilities at home and abroad, America needs a modernized, powerful, and resilient federal reserve force of highly skilled men and women. From force structure optimization to equipment modernization and operational realignments, it will take the unique strengths and capabilities of each of the Army’s components to ensure we are on a sustainable, strategic path.
The Army Reserve is grateful for the Congressional support of our Citizen Soldiers, civilians, and their families, along with resources that positively impact the readiness and modernization efforts to ensure our adversaries cannot out-range or outpace us on the traditional battlefields or in the new frontiers of space and cyberspace.
As always, we are Ready Now! Shaping tomorrow…