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U.S. Army Reserve Posture Statement
THE ARMY RESERVE POSTURE STATEMENT
Submitted to Congress each fiscal year, is an unclassified summary of Army Reserve roles, current commitments and accomplishments, challenges and compelling needs. The Army Reserve Posture Statement also informs Congress of the resources, necessary supplemental funding, and legislative authorities required by the Army Reserve.
LIEUTENANT GENERAL CHARLES D. LUCKEY
33d Chief of Army Reserve and
8th Commanding General, U.S. Army Reserve Command
For the past 15 years, the United States has embarked upon a far-reaching battle to defeat the forces of radical terrorism and bring a measure of peace and stability to a region that presented a direct threat to the safety and security of the American people. While this undertaking focused our time, treasure and attention on counterinsurgency and counterterrorism, current and potential adversaries seized the opportunity to study our tactics and invest in the modernization of their forces and capabilities.
Russia is arguably the best case in point. Having developed, tested and operationalized significant capabilities across all domains, Russia has clearly demonstrated its prowess as a global competitor, and its propensity to unilaterally use military force to achieve its perceived security objectives. China’s emerging capabilities across a variety of domains, coupled with its own economic objectives, make it a rising challenge to American security partners in the Western Pacific. Less capable as a competitor, but arguably more immediately problematic as a strategic challenge, North Korea’s unyielding quest for a road-mobile intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) that can reach the United States with a nuclear warhead raises obvious concerns that could drive hard choices for America. Iran’s funding of terrorism and pursuit of highly-capable missile technologies can reliably be expected to continue into the future. Taken together, these developments, combined with emerging technologies in hypersonics, cyber-strike, artificial intelligence and digital disruption, create a new and disrupting threat paradigm for the United States and its allies.
U.S. dominance in positioning, navigation and timing, stealth technologies, global reach, global command and control (C2), air supremacy, space operations and all aspects of maritime flexibility have been the foundational underpinning of America’s relative freedom-of-action in military
operations. Indeed, the vast majority of Soldiers serving today have never experienced a time in which America’s status as the preeminent global military power was open to challenge or contention. Nor have they been subject to an operating environment in which large concentrations of U.S. troops, supplies, or C2 nodes could be strafed; however, U.S. technological supremacy on the battlefield is a planning assumption we can no longer take for granted - in fact is quickly eroding. Such an environment demands that America’s Army Reserve be ready to operate in a fullspectrum environment that spans the continuum from persistent asymmetric warfare against the forces of radicalism and threat networks to the high-end demands of one or more peer competitors. We must move quickly to deliver the mobility, survivability, connectivity and lethality to win on the battlefield of tomorrow.
America’s Army Reserve has always risen to meet the challenges of our time, evolving from a nascent corps of doctors and nurses, to an Organized Reserve and, later, a strategic reserve under Federal control, to what is today an integral and essential element of the operational Army and a
force-provider to the Joint Force. Yet, our mission remains the same: to provide mission-critical capabilities for the Army and the Joint Warfighter whenever and wherever they are needed, anywhere on earth. Our vision for the future is clear. It is to forge and sustain the most capable, combat-ready and lethal Army Reserve force in the Nation’s history.
STATE OF THE ARMY RESERVE
Most combat-tested and experienced Army Reserve in the Nation’s history
The United States Army Reserve is the Army’s sole, dedicated federal Reserve force, providing operational capability and strategic depth to the Total Army and the Joint Force in support of U.S. national security interests and Army commitments worldwide. The Army Reserve comprises nearly twenty percent of the Army’s organized units, almost half its total maneuver support, and a quarter of its mobilization base-expansion capacity. Its unique status as both a component of the Army and a singular Command imbues it with the flexibility, agility and unity of effort needed to respond to any mission at home or abroad, often with little notice.
Provides enabling capabilities essential to major combat operations
Manned, trained and equipped primarily to enable combat formations, the Army Reserve provides quick access to trained and ready Soldiers and units and the critical enabling and sustaining capabilities the Army needs to win. These include key strategic and operational capabilities such as Petroleum Pipeline and Terminal Operations, Rail Units, Biological Identification Detachments, Broadcast Operations, Civil Affairs and Psychological Operations, a variety of Military Police capabilities, Horizontal and Vertical Construction, as well as Combat Engineers, Assault Aviation, Logistics, and an array of Medical Commands and formations.
New vision and action to increase combat readiness, capability and lethality
Engaged globally, the Army Reserve plays an integral role in America’s national defense architecture, meeting high operational tempo demands, generating forces as required, and providing reliable capabilities all Combatant Commands. Since 2001, more than 300,000 Army Reserve Soldiers have been mobilized and deployed to not only Iraq and Afghanistan but to worldwide missions in support of Theater Security Cooperation, Foreign Humanitarian Support, Homeland Defense, Defense Support of Civil Authorities and other military missions at home and around the world. Today, nearly 15,000 Army Reserve Soldiers are supporting global combatant command operations, around the world, to include Civil Affairs missions in the Horn of Africa, deterrence operations in Kuwait, Military Police operations at Guantanamo Bay, Cuba and Medical Support operations in Honduras. Today’s Army Reserve is the most combat-tested and experienced force in its history. However, we now need an Army Reserve that is ready to win in an environment that is growing in lethality and complexity. We must build an Army Reserve that is a more capable, combat-ready, and lethal force in the Nation’s history.
GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT, READINESS AND THE FUTURE
Peer and near-peer states are challenging U.S. technical supremacy
In 2016, America’s Army Reserve continued to meet the current and evolving threats of our time. In addition to the emergence of near-peer competitors on the global stage, the rapid technological evolution of offensive and defensive weapons across all domains presents the opportunity for adversaries to enhance their capabilities, reach, and lethality in new ways. For example, low-cost and highly adaptable technology platforms, like unmanned aerial vehicles systems (UAS), can threaten exponentially larger and more powerful platforms such as aircraft carriers. Next-generation cruise missiles, attack submarines, deep submersibles, space, and cyber capabilities can place all U.S. Forces within an enemy's reach at any given time. New hypersonic and electro-magnetic pulse (EMP) weapons and increasingly sophisticated cyber-actors portend a progressively lethal and disruptive battlespace at home and abroad, while emerging technologies, such as artificial intelligence, 3-D printing and human performance modification, will likely disrupt the battlefield in ways we do not yet understand.
Indicators point to an increasing lethal and disruptive battle-space for the future force
In this evolving global security environment in which both U.S. technological supremacy and vital national interests are subject to challenge by states who potentially possess both the means and proclivity to challenge U.S. dominance in critical areas and non-state actors who may acquire capabilities to acutely challenge our forces for discrete attacks, the mandate is clear: increase the readiness of Army Reserve forces – primarily units with a bias for action – in order to enable them to deploy and engage on short notice. This focus on readiness, of both individual Soldiers and action oriented units, drives the Army Reserve’s strategy for manning, training and equipping its “fight tonight” formations and adds credence to the Nation’s deterrence posture.
Readiness is our first priority, and full-spectrum threats demand full-spectrum readiness. In addition to sustaining the counter-insurgency and counterterrorism capabilities we have developed, the Army Reserve must be ready to respond to evolving threats in several theaters, and be prepared for the warfighting demands of large-scale, nearly simultaneous contingencies in more than one of them. Should they materialize, these contingencies would require significant and rapid mobilization, and require lead formations from America’s Army Reserve to provide technical enabling capabilities crucial to opening, synchronizing, and sustaining major operations.
In this new threat paradigm, the time-tested model of rotational readiness will no longer suffice. Our traditional “patch chart” approach will not generate the significant surge capacity that such contingencies – arising quickly with little strategic indications and warning – will demand. To that end, the Army Reserve must now focus its training, equipping and manning priorities to meet the challenge of generating full-spectrum readiness for a Ready Force of some 25,000 to 33,000 Soldiers who are capable of deploying to the fight in a matter of days and weeks. This work includes having sufficient critical Army Reserve enabler capabilities and ensuring there are no interoperability gaps in areas such as mobility, lethality, battlefield communications and mission command systems.
Building and Sustaining the Ready Force
Work is well-underway at the United States Army Reserve Command at Fort Bragg, to assess and identify those types of units that will be most critical to rapidly support the warfighter through the Army Service Component Commands around the globe, and to win in contested environments across multiple domains. These units, which include early-entry/set-the-theater capabilities, are being specifically identified to ensure that leaders throughout the chain-of-command are cognizant of potential deployment timelines and, accordingly, steady-state readiness requirements. These units will be appropriately manned (or capable of being augmented in days to meet manning requirements), trained and equipped to meet the timelines driven by the warfighter and will be maintained at that level until further notice. This Ready Force construct will enhance unit and Soldier stability, mitigate the cascading impacts of cross-leveling, and rationalize training, equipping and modernization strategies. Drafting off of the Army’s Sustainable Readiness model, other units will remain sized, trained, and postured to protect the Nation and its interests as required, to include Homeland Defense (HD) and Defense Support of Civil Authorities (DSCA) missions.
At its heart, readiness begins at the Soldier level with deployable troops who are able to mobilize and deploy quickly in highly capable units to win the Nation’s wars. Individual Readiness 4 is the foundation of combat power and the decisive edge. It relies on energetic leadership and execution, the ultimate force multiplier, and depends upon both the families who support and sustain our Soldiers, and the employers who enable them to serve the Army and the Nation.
Readiness - Manning, Training, Equipping and Leadership
There are four essential components of Readiness: Manning, Training, Equipping, and Leadership. They are all critical, and they are largely interdependent.
is the cornerstone of readiness for America’s Army Reserve. This applies across the force in general and all the more so in quick-turn deployable units. It begins by positioning force structure in the right locales to leverage national demographics and emerging trends in order to capitalize on a mixture of population densities, predisposition to service, as well as other factors, that set units up for success in recruiting and retaining talent in an all-volunteer environment. This also includes re-aligning Full Time Support (FTS) personnel from lower priority units – from a deployment timeline perspective – to those units in the Ready Force which are tagged to move more quickly.
is the second component of readiness. To maintain operational readiness and prepare for current and future threats to our Nation, the Army Reserve is revamping its collective training strategy, returning to its expeditionary Army roots, and focusing on mission-essential tasks. Soldiers and units will not only be proficient in their warrior tasks and drills, but focused collectively on the unit and occupational specialties required to win decisively in a complex and dynamic operational environment. The Army Reserve will train to Objective T standards, which means that Commanders, at all levels, will ensure that units achieve participation rates and execute decisive action training required to meet these new readiness requirements. Because predictable multi-component integrated training is essential to building the readiness required to meet shortnotice contingency requirements, the Army Reserve will prioritize resources to ensure early entry enabler formations participate in Army and Joint training events that leverage live, constructive, virtual and gaming capabilities.
is the third component of readiness, and modernized equipment ensures that Army Reserve early enablers remain both interoperable and readily available as a vital component of the operational force. Equipping requires sustained and predictable funding to maintain a fully operational Army Reserve. Insufficient funding widens capability gaps which jeopardize the Army Reserve’s ability to support the Joint Force. Although the Army Reserve represents nearly 20 percent of the Total Army, it received less than 3.4 percent of the Total Army’s equipment procurement budget in FY 2016. Lack of interoperability puts all Army formations at risk when deployed. Equipping, funding and fielding should ensure Army Reserve is ready and interoperable with deploying forces within the timelines expected for supporting the Army and Joint Force in decisive action operations against a peer adversary.
pervades all aspects of readiness, and serves as the ultimate force multiplier. Leaders are the most effective hedge against complexity and uncertainty, and a resource that can neither be replaced by technology nor substituted with weaponry and platforms. The Army Reserve has combat-seasoned force leaders, at every echelon, who have led in combat. We will 5 build on that experience and harness it to meet our Nation's future tactical, operational and strategic objectives. The Army Reserve will also use its unique position with the private sector to access talent and develop leaders with advanced technical skills for use in military formations.
Families and Employers
Readiness is built and sustained by garnering and retaining the support of both our families and, for America’s Army Reserve, the employers who enable us to serve the Army and the Nation. The reason for this is as simple as it is self-evident: in a Nation that depends upon an all-volunteer force for its survival, if you are unable to hold the support of our families and fellow-citizens, you do not have an Army. Families who feel embraced, appreciated and integrated in to the Army Reserve are our key enablers. Similarly, the unwavering support of employers for Army Reserve Soldiers often determines their ability to continue to serve the Nation without being forced to choose between a civilian career or continued service to the people of the United States as an American Soldier.
Translated into action, this reality requires a coherent and integrated approach whereby a variety of Family Support programs and initiatives are leveraged to support Families and sustain a sense of community and mutual support in spite of the geographic dispersion of our units and Soldiers who are spread around the world. Sustaining employer support becomes an even more complex and demanding challenge when seen in the context of the Army’s appropriate reliance upon the Army Reserve to generate the requisite combat power the nation requires. Persistent and persuasive engagement with employers and the communities in which they reside through a variety of outreach tools, is the key to reminding American businesses of the essential linkage between their “patriotism” and national security. We cannot, and will not, throttle back on this effort. Our U.S. Army Reserve Ambassadors, Public-Private Partnership Program and community support initiatives at the local level are all critical enablers in this push.
By way of example, the Army Reserve maintains an around-the-clock capability to support our Soldiers and Families. Manning a 24/7 watch floor, via phone or email, the Fort Family Outreach and Support Center at Fort Bragg, North Carolina provides a direct conduit to command an community resources with comprehensive and confidential information, assistance, and referrals for every aspect of military life. Moreover, the Army Reserve Volunteer Program promotes and strengthens volunteerism by uniting community volunteer efforts, enhancing volunteer career mobility, and establishing volunteer partnerships.
Our Survivor Outreach Services Program maintains a family’s connection with the Army family in times of loss, regardless of a fallen member’s duty status or component. Child and Youth Services helps geographically dispersed Soldiers and families find affordable childcare and youth supervision options within local communities. Army Family Team Building is a readiness training program to educate Army Families about military life. These and other Family Readiness programs support more than a quarter of a million dependents in America’s Army Reserve.1 They are initiatives that have proven themselves effective time and again.
Suicide prevention is the shared responsibility of commanders, leaders, Soldiers, Family members, and Army civilians at all levels and our efforts are a key component to personal unit readiness. Ensuring prompt access to quality care is an essential component of suicide prevention but we must also reduce risk, and one of the greatest risks is stigma. In the Army Reserve, we are working to reduce or eliminate the stigma associated with seeking help for suicidal thoughts or feelings, and are working to providing supportive environments for those with emotional and psychological issues. The Army Reserve is diligent in raising awareness of the many tools and resources available to increase individual resiliency and eliminate the incidences of suicide. For example, Military OneSouce provides free financial counselors for military members facing serious financial issues – a key suicide risk factor. The Comprehensive Soldier Fitness (CSF) Program helps Soldiers learn resiliency and have the tools to grow through demanding experiences. The Army Reserve’s Fort Family Outreach Support Center (1-866-345-8248) provides live assistance for Soldiers and Families in need, 24 hours a day, seven days a week. The Army Reserve is unleashing the power of the team to take care of our teammates and eliminate suicides within our team.
Sexual Harassment and Assault Prevention
Sexual harassment and assault are taken seriously across the entire Army Reserve. The Army Reserve is a family, a close-knit team. Sexual harassment and assault is an attack on our team, and it is not tolerated. Just as we would not let anyone hurt our immediate family members, we will not let anyone harm a member of our Army Reserve team and our unit readiness. The leaders at all echelons of the Army Reserve are the shields of trust for each Soldier. We must have high levels of mutual trust to get after those who would break that bond. As the shields to our team, the entirety of the Army Reserve is committed to 1) Protect victims, provide compassionate care, protect their rights and privacy, and prevent sexual assaults from occurring in the first place; 2) Report every allegation, ensure that they are thoroughly and professionally investigated, and take appropriate action based on the results of those investigations; 3) Create a positive command climate, and an environment of trust and respect in which every person can thrive and achieve their full potential; 4) Hold individuals, units, Commanders and leaders responsible for their actions or inactions; 5) Fully engage the chain of command, and hold it accountable for everything that goes on in the unit.
The Army Reserve is fully committed to preventing harassment and sexual assault, caring for the victims, and holding those who commit such egregious acts accountable.
Shape and Grow the Future Force
Staying current with force structure changes, unit positioning, leader development, and leveraging emerging technologies, capabilities and opportunities are key aspects of the agility the Army Reserve will use to shape and grow the future force.
The positioning of force structure, units and capabilities is a vital part of developing tomorrow’s Army Reserve. Building for the future means ensuring that America’s Army Reserve not only anticipates and flexes to meet new and emerging force structure requirements, but that ready units are positioned where future Soldiers are living and working in their chosen fields. Aligning force structure and unit locations with trending demographics will also help overcome perennial recruiting and retention challenges.
Developing agile leaders who can thrive in a full spectrum environment, are capable of making hard decisions under stress, and can operate in a complex and potentially digitally- disrupted or austere environment is a key component of our strategy to shape and grow the future force.
The Army Reserve’s deep connection to the private sector is a substantial advantage in understanding and exploiting cutting-edge technology advances and capabilities, such as those in the cyber domain. For example, we are already positioning structure to support high tech-focused Department of Defense (DoD) initiatives leveraging “digital key terrain” in select locations in the United States, and seizing on further opportunities to draw upon our civilian skills and relationships with the private sector to meet critical needs of the Army.
Finally, infrastructure is also a critical component of generating readiness. No one installation is ideally suited to providing first-class training to all formations at all times of the year. Training platforms – their location, capabilities and limitations – must be assessed and leveraged in a manner that optimizes their ability to provide relevant, combat focused training experiences for Army Reserve units, and maximizes their ability to increase the combat-readiness of discrete capable units in the minimum time possible.
Resourcing and Sequestration
Consistent funding is critical to current and future readiness. Without predicable funding, the Army Reserve, along with all components of the Total Army, will have difficulty meeting the operational capability requirements of the Army and Combatant Commands in a full spectrum environment. When the Budget Control Act of 2011 caps return in FY 2018, the Army Reserve will incur significant risk in training, facility restoration and modernization, and equipping and modernization programs vital to generating the readiness necessary to win our Nation’s wars.
Military Construction (MILCON) funding is necessary to restore critical aging and decaying infrastructure and replace facilities that can no longer be economically sustained. Army Reserve Training Centers are essential readiness platforms enabling home station training and generating individual and collective readiness within and among units. Under current MILCON funding levels, the Army Reserve is taking significant risk to readiness in the ability to sustain, restore, and modernize enduring facilities that are necessary to execute the Army’s training strategy.
As with training and facilities investments, equipping the force requires predictable and sustained funding to achieve full spectrum operational readiness. Current funding levels require continued reliance on less modern or interoperable equipment. Additionally, the combination of aging equipment and constrained depot maintenance funding drives higher levels of risk to unit readiness and the operational force. If the threat of sequestration is not eliminated, training for decisive action will be at high risk.
Areas of high risk for the Army Reserve include Mission Command Systems. Specific capability shortfalls include battle command systems, tactical radios and satellite transpor platforms. The velocity of technological change continues to outpace the Army’s procurement and modernization strategy.
Since 2013, as the Army Reserve’s share of base modernization funding decreased, the importance of the National Guard and Reserve Equipping Appropriation (NGREA) has increased, accounting for 26 percent of the Army Reserve’s total procurement funding. The Army Reserve is grateful for the support Congress has provided through NGREA.
AMERICA’S ARMY RESERVE: CAPABLE. READY. LETHAL.
America’s Army Reserve is a capable, ready, and lethal team providing critical capabilities to Army Service Component Commands and all Combatant Commands. Although the threats to America are dynamic and ever increasing, the Army Reserve remains a highly effective and responsive force for the nation. As it has since its founding in 1908 as the Medical Reserve Corps, today’s Army Reserve – anchored in civilian employment and local communities across the nation, and highly trained and educated in 148 different military career fields – stands ready to serve the Nation at home and abroad. America’s Army Reserve – a force of technically and highly skilled Soldiers, leaders, and units: Capable. Ready. Lethal.
1. Army Reserve Family Programs; database available online at: http://arfp.org/.
2. The Fort Family Outreach and Support Center at http://arfp.org/fortfamily.html or via the Fort Family phone number at 1-866-345-8248 provides live, relevant, and responsive information to support Army Reserve Soldiers and Families. Available 24 hours a day, seven days a week, and 365 days a year, it provides unit and community- based solutions that connects people to people. Assistance is provided during times of crisis as well as routine assistance for other immediate needs to help maintain Soldier and family readiness and resiliency. By pinpointing Families in need and local community resources, the Fort Family Outreach and Support Center can quickly connect the Soldier and Family to resources, providing installation-commensurate services in the geographic location of the crisis. Fort Family Outreach and Support Center has established a community-based capacity by engaging our Nation's "Sea of Goodwill" to support Soldiers and Families close to their residence. Simply stated, Fort Family via web or phone connects Soldiers and Families with the right service at the right time.
3. The Army Reserve established four full-time Special Victim Counsel (SVCs) positions, located at each of the four Regional Support Commands; 42 Troop Program Unit (TPU) SVCs, located at the Army Reserve General Officer Commands (GOCOMs); and 27 SVCs, located within each Legal Operation Detachment. The Army Reserve also established 50 full-time Sexual Assault Response Coordinator/Victim Advocate (SARC/VA) positions that span the footprint of the Army Reserve. Forty-three of the 50 SARC/VA positions are currently filled with personnel in a MILTECH and AGR status. Previously, the Army Reserve maintained five hotlines listed on the Department of Defense (DoD) Safe Helpline website, which were accessible for referral through the Helpline operators. To improve responsiveness, accessibility and breadth of resources, the Army Reserve consolidated all hotlines under the Fort Family Outreach and Support Center. The Army Reserve routinely participates in and hosts forums and panels at all levels of command in the Army. This includes meetings with the HQDA SHARP Program Office and the SHARP Academy to improve Army Reserve participation in policy formulation, training, and future developments. The Army Reserve also utilizes improved analytics to inform current and future mitigation efforts. Finally, our adoption of a more aggressive focus and stance on Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault demonstrated a positive impact in the force. We are fully committed to maintaining an environment free of sexual harassment and sexual assault throughout the Army Reserve.
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